Why surge arrester is better for lightning protection against traveling wave.

Surge arrester main concept is to utilize the non linear behavior with the rising of voltage level. Say for low voltage it shows mega ohom range resistance but with high rising voltage its resistance drops to 10 ohom range.

As for spark gap which is always constant for any level of voltages, surge arrester is better as it changes its value as per the rising speed of the voltage and its level.

Characteristics of surge arrester

zinc oxide (ZnO) surge arresters act like strongly non-linear resistors.

Under normal service conditions, the several Megohm withstand and the current, which remains low (in the realm of mA), limits dissipated power.

Under voltage surge conditions, the withstand greatly drops (up to roughly 5 or 10 ohms), thus limiting the voltage in surge arrester terminals and therefore in the equipment for the duration
needed for the lightning current to runoff to the earth.

surge arrester charactyeristics

surge arrester is a better lightning arrester

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