Like relays, Solenoid takes more voltage to pull in the solenoid than it takes to hold it in the retracted position, Thus, if a solenoid is left on, it is drawing more current than it really needs, and it tends to heat up. So there types, parameters are need to be known to apply them in practical application.
According to operation, An intermittent-duty solenoid is designed to operate for a short time and then take time to cool. And a continuous-duty solenoid is designed to deal with the heat, so it can operate all the time.
According to fed power-
Lamination prevent power-consuming eddy currents (induced by the AC) from circulating in the metal parts of the solenoid. “Lifts and Strokes” in solenoid is the maximum pull force (which occurs when the plunger is retracted).
Solenoid application area and its limitation.
The main limitation of the solenoid is its short stroke, which is usually under an inch. Still, there are many applications for short-stroke linear motion; examples are activating electric car-door locks, opening and closing valves, and triggering mechanical latches.
Most applications use the solenoid as a on or off device—that is, the coil is either completely energized or switched off. However, variable-position control is possible by varying the input voltage.