Power factor, active & reactive power basic concept.

Power factor- In ac circuit there is some phase difference between the voltage and current. The cosine of this angle phase difference is called Power factor or PF. Popularly defined as cosφ.

Power factor types-

Leading power factor- Current leads voltage. Happens with Capacitive load circuit, Lagging power factor- Current lags behind voltage. Happens with Inductive load circuit.Value of Power factor– As power factor is a cos function its possible value ranges from -1 to +1

Active and reactive component of power factor:

I cosφ is called active or watt full component, I sinφ called reactive or watt less component.Reactive component is very much important for power factor measurement and control. It has a inverse relationship with power factor.  The less the reactive component the more is the power factor.

Power factor leading and lagging
Active and reactive component of power factor
active power reactive power image.bmp
Active, reactive, apparent power

Active, reactive and apparent power-

  • VIcosφ- active power in KW.
  • VIsinφ- reactive power in KVAR.
  • VI- Apparent power in VA.

electrical power diagram power factor

Electrical power is the geometrical sum of two parts.
• S² = P² + Q², where
S = Apparent Power, kVA
P = Active Power, kW
Q = Reactive Power, kvar

• cos φ = P/S=PF, power factor which tells us what is the proportion between the active and the apparent power, how much there is active power in apparent power.
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